AS

PS

PI

AI

NOTEThe superior to inferior (vertical) line runs through the posterior border of the handle of the malleus

TM perforation can be described as a fraction of the TM: < ¼, ¼ - ½, ½ - ¾, > ¾ or total. In the ‘total perforation’ category, the annulus is absent. 

Tympanic membrane perforation study

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